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Not for you the dull labour of having to memorize spellings like vin, vins, vint, vint, vain, vains, vingt, all of which spell exactly the same sound in French ; nor need you burn the midnight oil like the foreigner who has to memorize plough, though, enough, trough, cough, hiccough, through, all of which are pronounced differently though all contain the same combination of letters, " ough ". If you know the pronunciation of the German alphabet, you can pronounce practically any German word correctly. There is none of that shifting, delicate stress that makes French so difficult to speak smoothly.

This strong stress makes the German words easy to say and easy to memorize. German is a rough-and-ready language as compared with French, and however badly you may speak it, you will never feel that you are murdering it, as is so often the case with French! Most German books are printed in Gothic, but the future may possibly see it replaced by the Roman.

Do not count on that, but read Gothic until it becomes second nature. Need you learn to write and read the Gothic script? No, there is no need to write it yourself as all Germans can read Roman, but if you are going to read letters in German written by Germans, you should practise reading the script. It is fun to learn to write the script, and my advice is to tackle it.

They will not, however, take you very far in German. In French there are literally thousands of words met with in books which are common to the two languages : arriver, beauU, fraternite, consolation, observation, intime, probable, possibility, etc. This makes French so attractive to us, especi- ally when we are beginning the language. Nevertheless, if you study your German vocabulary the right way, you will find that it is much easier and more familiar than seemed to be the case. German is built up out of its own native elements, not, like English, containing a vast vocabulary borrowed from French, Latin, and Greek.

German has, of course, a large number of such words, but for the last forty years they have been frowned on officially and been replaced by pure German words : die Photographie is now das Lichtbild — ' ' light-picture ' ' ; das Telefon is der Fernsprecher — ' ' far-speaker ' ' ; das A utomobil is der Kraftwagen — ' ' power- carriage ". Let us take a typical German word to pieces and see what we get out of it. Die Eigenschaft means " quality, attribute, property in the sense that 'hardness is a property of iron' , character.

If you take it to pieces, its meaning becomes clearer and you attach it to a whole family of words which group themselves together in your memory. Eigenschaft falls into eigen, our word " own," as in " my own work," and the suffix -schaft, like our " -ship " in " friendship " ; Eigenschaft then means " ownship " or " ownness," that which belongs especially to anything, just as " hardness " belongs especially to iron. Now there is, I said, a family of words which group themselves round eigen; here they are: das Eigentum — " owndom " is property in the sense of what you possess, what belongs to you ; der Eigentiimer is the proprietor ; der Eigensinn — " own sense " — is obstinacy ; der Eigenwille — " own will " — is wilfulness ; der Eigenname — ' ' own name " — is proper name or noun.

Then there are some useful verbs : sich eignen, to be suitable, appropriate ; sich aneignen, to appropriate note how the " proper " comes in the English ; enteignen, to expropriate. That is a small group, but it will serve as an example of how to dig round in your dictionary so as to group words in families and thus help your memory.

There is a further point : German likes to make compound words which look very long and clumsy but are in fact useful and often neat. English likes compound words too, but, unlike German, prints them separately. Thus our " Life Insurance Company " is just as much one word as the German Lebensversicherungsgesellschaft, which consists of the words Leben, " life," Versicherung, " making sure, or insuring," and Gesellschaft, " company or companionship," joined together by two s's.

Do not be frightened of these long words : break them down into their component parts and the meaning will shell out like peas from a pod. No, it is not : the verb is easy, very much easier than the French with its -i, -ee, -is, -ees, -er, -ez, -ai, -ais, -ait, -aient, all of which have to the uninitiated ear the same sound and are horribly confusing. And then the French irregular verbs! German is simplicity itself compared with them : singen, ich singe, ich sang, ich habe gesungen fall at once into place alongside the English — to sing, I sing, I sang, I have sung.

Your difficulties will lie mainly with the declension of the Articles, Nouns, and Adjectives, and the use of the Cases, whilst the order of words will also prove a stumbling-block. Once you have mastered these, German is yours ; but you must master them. No half-measures will do, no slovenly thinking you know : you must give your whole mind to the job of learning these basic facts. Re- member that this little Grammar will give you the materials to build with, but you yourself must do the building, i. Nobody and no book can teach you a foreign language, they can only show you how to learn it.

That means that you must drench yourself not merely in the grammar and the vocabulary, but in the living language : you must read, read, read and, if you have the oppor- tunity, speak, speak, speak. From the beginning of your studies you should tackle continuous texts and never allow a day to pass without some reading of German, either at home, in the train, the tube, the bus, or on the seat in the park. In both cases it is pro- nounced like our z. It is used in combination with p and t belonging to the stem of the word, and is pronounced shp and sht when initial, as in pat, fttmmert ; when in the interior of a word, as in 5bto[pe, ftaften, it is pronounced sp and st as in English.

In our Concise Grammar we have printed the German examples in Roman characters and we have used " s " and " ss " instead of the various letters given above. It should be remembered that this is only an approxima- tion as no two sounds in different languages are really exactly alike, e. The learner should, as advised in the " Introductory Advice," study the sounds on gramophone records.

There is one point which must be stressed, namely that German vowels when initial are pronounced with an explosion of the breath which is suddenly released. This is called the Glottal Stop and is a striking feature of German, giving it a sort of sergeant-major hammer- beat as the explosion bites off the words. In English we run the words together, as in oneandall or oneanall ; in German the Glottal Stop separates the words and einundachtzig is pronounced? This Stop is found in many English and Scottish dialects, e. Letters Description a As a in father, ai, ay As i in fine, au As ow in fowl.

In kn the k is pronounced. English nouns have only one case with a definite form of its own, the Genitive, as in " the man's son," where the " 's " is the Genitive ending. Our pronouns, however, have a Nominative form — "I," "he," "they"; an Accusative or Dative — " me," " him," " them," and a sort of Genitive — " mine," " his," " their". In English We know whether a noun is Nominative, Accusative, or Dative only by its position m the sentence.

In "The father sees the son," the father is the doer of the action of seeing, the subject of the sentence, and is Nominative. The son is the object or extent of the action of seeing and is the object of the sentence, the Accusative. Der Vater sieht den Sohn can mean only " The father sees the son," and the order of the words cannot change the meaning, since the Nominative is marked out by der and the Accusative by den.

Thus word-order is much freer in German than in English : all the follow- ing are possible, i. Der Vater sieht den Sohn. Den Sohn sieht der Vater. Sieht der Vater den Sohn? Sieht den Sohn der Vater? Der Vater den Sohn sieht. Den Sohn der Vater sieht. They all mean the same basically, but the emphasis is different. This distinction between Nominative and Accusative, however, applies only to the Masculine Singular, not to the Fern. We shall set them out in that order, although grammars made in Germany use the order: Nom.

Prepositions may govern any of the cases except the Nom. As in English, there is no special form in German for this case of " calling ". In Der Mann sieht den Mond, " The man sees the moon," the moon is the extent of the action of seeing. This is the most general use, viz. In Der Mann bleibt einen Monat, " The man remains a month," a month is the extent in time of his remaining and is in the Accusative, though it is not the object of the verb.

In Der Sack wiegt einen Zentner, " The bag weighs a hundredweight," the hundredweight is the extent of the weighing and is in the Accusative, but is not the object of the verb. It indicates generally the person — rarely the thing — indirectly affected by or interested in the action: In Der Vater gibt dem Sohn das Buch, " The father gives the son the book," the book is the gift, the thing given, most closely related to the action of giving, and is in the Accusative ; the son is indirectly affected by the giving and the gift, and is in the Dative case. In English we can show this by a preposition : " The father gives the book to the son.

A 11 genders Nom. Know them! Let us now set them out in two groups, Masc. Plural Nom. All genders Nom. Article except : Nom. If you have learnt the one, you know the other. Words declined like ein, eine, ein are : kein no, not any ; mein my ; dein thy ; sein his ; ihr her ; unser our ; Euer and Ihr your ; ihr their. Feminine nouns have no case endings in the singular : N. A group of Masc.

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All Masc. The Dat. Examples of the above : N. This change of vowel sound is called modification der Umlaut and frequently occurs in the plural of nouns. Thus, der Hut adds -e and becomes die Hilte ; das Haus adds -er and becomes die Hauser. There are, however, a number of exceptions. Here are some useful rules for the Plural : i. The great majority of Fern, nouns add -n or -en.

The Nom. Plural always ends in -n.


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We can classify our Plurals into : I. Those which add nothing : der Giirtel — die Giirtel ; das Mddchen — die Mddchen. Those which add -er : das Glas — die Gldser. The following table shows how Masc, Fern. None modify, der Knabe — die Knaben. Plural Ending : -1 Feminine Most Fern, nouns. None modify, die Zeit — die Zeiten. Neuter See below, " Mixed Declension. Plural Ending : None Those ending in -el, -er, -en. Most do not modify ; a few do. Note : der Kase — die Kase. Only two ; both modify.

Those ending in -el, -er, -en, -chen, and -lein, and those with prefix Ge- ending in -e. Only one modifies : das Kloster — die Kloster convent. Those ending in -ig, -ing, -ling. None modify. Plural Ending : -1 Some 30 common monosyllables. Also a few in -nis and -sal ; they do not modify : die Bedrangnis — die Bedrang- nisse ; die Triib- sal — die Triib- sale.

A small number of monosyllables. Also those ending in -nis and -sal: das Zeugnis — die Zeugnisse ; das Schicksal — die Schicksale. Plural Some 11 common None. Ending : -er Most monosyllables and all Neuters in -turn. All modify. The following have lost their -e and are declined like Filrst : der Bar bear ; der Christ Christian ; der Graf count ; der Mensch human being ; der Narr fool ; der Held hero ; der Herr, which makes die Herren in the plural. Nouns of foreign origin accented on the last syllable also belong to Class I : der Student — die Studenten ; der Philosoph — die Philosophen, and are declined like Knabe.

Masculines in Class II mostly do not modify ; the following do modify : der Acker field ; der Bruder brother ; der Garten garden ; der Graben ditch ; der Hammer hammer ; der Hafen harbour ; der Handel trade ; der Mangel lack ; der Nagel nail ; der Of en stove ; der Sattel saddle ; der Schnabel beak ; der Schwager brother-in-law : der Vater father : der Vogel bird. A number of these end in -eur : der Redakteur editor — die Redakteure. Neuter Monosyllables in Class IV which add -er and modify are : das A mt office ; das Bad bath ; das Band ribbon ; das Blait leaf, page ; das Buck book ; das Dach roof ; das Dorf village ; das Fass vat ; das Grab grave ; das Gras grass ; das Gut estate, commodity ; das Haupt head ; das Holz wood ; das Horn horn ; das Huhn hen ; das Kalb calf ; das Lamm lamb ; das Land land ; das Loch hole ; das Mahl repast ; das Rod wheel ; das Schloss castle, lock ; das Tuch cloth ; das Volk people.

Also most loan words in -or : der Doktor — des Doktors — die Doktoren. The following have two plurals with different meanings : Das Band has die Bander ribbons and die Bande chains. Die Bank has die Bdnke benches and die Banken banks for money. Das Ding has die Dinge things and die Dinger wretched things or people. Das Gesicht has die Gesichte apparitions and die Gesichter faces. Das Licht has die Lichte candles and die Lichter lights. Der Ort has die Orte districts and die Orter towns, places. Das Tuch has die Tuche kinds of cloth and die Tiicher pieces of cloth. Das Wort has die Worte connected words and die Worter words as units.

If preceded by the Def. Art the Genitive ending disappears: des Karl; des Schiller; des juneen Goethe. Do not try to memorize Tisch, m. All males : der Mann, der Fiirst. A large number of nouns in -er denoting the doer of an action : der Reiter, horseman, der Fiihrer, leader, driver. The days of the week : der Montag ; months : der Juli ; seasons : er Sommer ; points of the compass : der Harden or Nord. Words of two syllables in -en : der Garten, der Of en ; a number of j ouns in -e denoting living creatures : der Robe ; nouns derived c rectly from the stem of strong verbs : der Fall, der Trunk ; nouns e iding in -ig : der Konig ; -ich : der Fittich ; -ling : der Findling.

Females : die Frau, but das Weib, das Fraulein, das Madchen. All nouns ending in -ei : die Reiterei ; -heit : die Kindheit ; -keit : die Dankbarkeit ; -ung : die Trennung ; -schaft : die Freundschaft ; -ie : die Familie ; -ion : die Ration ; -tat : die Universitdt ; -ik : die Fabrik ; -in, corresponding to our -ess : die Furstin, die Herrin, die Freundin pi. Herrinnen, Freundinnen. Nouns ending in -e denoting inanimates : die Bluse, die Lange ; nouns ending in -t derived from strong verbs : die Macht, die Tat.

All diminutives ending in -chen and -lein : das Mdnn- lein, das Hiitchen. All other parts of speech used as nouns : in- finitives : das Singen ; adjectives used as abstract nouns : das Schone, beauty, the beautiful ; prepositions : das Fur und das Wider " for and against " ; pros and cons. Names of metals, except der Stahl : das Risen, das Gold. Names of countries : das alte England. Die Schweiz, Switzerland, and die Tiirkei, Turkey, are feminine.

Most nouns ending in -nis : das Begrdbnis ; -sal : das Schicksal ; -sel : das Rdtsel ; -turn : das Konigtum, royalty. Der Mut, courage, makes die Sanftmut, gentleness ; die Schwermut, melancholy, but der Gleichmut, equanimity ; der Hochmut, pride, etc. If the Adjective qualifies the noun directly — attributively it is inflected : der alte Mann, ein alter Mann ; die alte Frau, eine alte Frau ; das alte Haus, ein altes Haus.

There are three declensions : I. Strong, when the Adjective stands before the noun without any determinative such as the Definite or Indefinite Articles or any word declined like them, e. This declension is found in the singular mainly with names oi substances and is therefore infrequent, but it is common in the plural : young children, interesting books : junge Kinder, interessante Biicher II. Weak, when the Adjective is preceded by the Definite Article or any word declined like it, such as dieser, jener, etc. Mixed, when the Adjective is preceded by the Indefinite Article or any word declined like it, such as mein, Ihr, etc.

Strong As the Adjective takes the place of the Definite Article, it has to do the job of the latter and hence takes its endings. If you know der die, das, you know this declension of the Adjective : Masc. Weak If the Adjective is preceded by der, die, das, or any word declined like it, the Adjective has practically nothing to do and has only two endings, -e and -en. Mixed If the Adjective is preceded by the Indefinite Article or by any word declined like it, such as mein, unser, etc.

Sing, and the Neuter Nom. This it does by taking over the ending of der and das in those cases, viz. Neuter Plural der ein die eine das ein die keine N. Hoch, high, changes ch to h before -e : der Berg ist hoch, but ein hoher Berg, a high mountain. Present and Past Participles of verbs are adjectives and declined as such : ein spannendes Buck, a thrilling book ; der gejagte Hase, the hunted hare.

Adjectives can be used as substantives, in which case they have a capital letter : der Blinde, the blind man ; die Blinde, the blind woman ; die Blinden, the blind ; ein Blinder, a blind man ; eine Blinde, a blind woman. The substantive is declined exactly as if it were an adjective. The Neuter is used in a general sense : das Geschehene, what has happened ; das Schone in der Natur, the beautiful in nature. Most monosyllables also modify the vowel if it is a, o, or u.

Adjectives ending in a sibilant or in -d or -t, add -est for the Superlative, all others adding -st. Adjectives ending in -er, -el, or -en may drop the -e when adding the -er for the Comparative, e. A word about the Superlative. There are two kinds : a when we compare one thing or person with others — called the Relative Super- lative — as in ' ' This river is the deepest, ' ' where ' ' This river " is compared with other rivers, Dieser Fluss ist der tiefste ; b the Absolute Superlative, when a thing or person is compared with itself, as in " The river is deepest here," Hier ist der Fluss am tiefsten, literally " Here the river is at its deepest.

Here are some examples of the comparison of Adjectives given in the most convenient form for learning, viz. Idnger als, longer than : Positive Comparative Rel. Superlative Abs. Superlative lang, long langer als der, die das langste am langsten kurz, short kiirzer als der, die, das kiirzeste am kiirzesten alt, old alter als der, die, das alteste am altesten einfach, simple einfacher als der, die, das einfachste am einfachsten The following monosyllables do not modify : klar, clear ; sanft, gentle ; schlank, slender ; stolz, proud ; voll, full ; starr, stiff.

Irregular forms are : gut, good, besser, best hoch, high, hoher, hochst nah, near, naher, nachst gross, big, grosser, grosst viel, much, mehr, meist When declined, the Comparative and Superlative forms add on the case inflexions exactly as does the Positive : der alte Mann, der dltere Mann, der alteste Mann; kein alter Mann, kein alt e rer Mann, kein dltester Mann, etc. In German the Adverb has the same form as the Adjective, but it is not declined : Marie ist schon, Mary is beautiful ; Marie singt schon, Mary sings beautifully.

There are some few Adverbs which use the Superlative without am or aufs, e. Here are some examples of Adverbs compared : Positive Comparative Rel. Superlative schon schoner als am sehonsten aufs schonste schnell schneller als am schnellsten aufs schnellste The following are irregular : gut wohl , well besser am besten gern, willingly lieber am liebsten bald, soon eher am ehesten viel, much mehr am melsten VIII. NUMERALS The Cardinal numbers are : null 1 ein, eine, ein 2 zwei 3 drei 4 vier 5 fiinf funf 6 sechs 7 sieben 8 acht 9 neun io zehn n elf 12 ZWOlf 13 dreizehn 14 vierzehn 15 fiinfzehn funfzehn 16 sechzehn siebzehn siebenzehn 18 achtzehn 19 neunzehn 17 10 1, 20 zwanzig 21 einundzwanzig 22 zweiundzwanzig 23 dreiundzwanzig 30 dreissig 40 vierzig 50 fiinfzig funfzig 60 sechzig 70 siebzig slebenzig 80 achtzig 90 neunzig hundert 10 1 ein hundertundeins ein hundertundzwei zweihundert , tausend , ein tausendundeins , zehntausend , hunderttausend , eine Million Notes.

To distinguish between the Indefinite Article ein, eine, ein and the numeral, e. In telephoning and in wireless 2 is pronounced zwo. The Ordinals are formed by adding -t to the Cardinals from 2 to 19 and -st from 20 onwards, except for first, third, and eighth. Halb, half, is used for ein Zweitel : eine halbe Stunde, half an hour, or die Hdlfle as in Die Hdlfle meines Vermogens, half my fortune. Other useful forms derived from the cardinals are those in -erlei : einerlei, of one kind ; zweierlei, of two kinds ; allerlei, of all kinds.

They are uninfected. By adding -mal we get einmal, once ; zweimal, twice ; dreimal, three times. By adding -fach we get einfach, one-fold, single, simple ; zweifach, twofold ; dreifach, threefold. By adding -ens to the ordinal we get erstens, in the first place ; zweitens, in the second place, etc. The seasons : der Fruhling, der Sommer, der Herbst, der Winter. Useful expressions are : am Montag, on Monday ; er kommt jeden Montag, he comes every Monday ; sie besucht uns Montags, she visits us on Mondays. Im Fruhling ist das Wetter kiihl, in spring the weather is cool ; im August ist es oft schwul, in August it is often sultry.

For dates we ask : Der wievielte ist heute? What is the date day of the month today? The answer runs : Es ist heute der zwanzigste Juli, neunzehnhundertfunfund- vierzig or Wir haben heute den zwanzigsten Juli, etc. Dates on a letter are in the Accusative : Berlin, den vierten August. To say " That took place in ," we have either Das fand im Jahre statt or Das fand statt, but we never use in alone before the year as we do in English. Im is a fusion of the preposition in and the dative dem. To ask the time, we use Wieviel Uhr ist es? What time is it?

We tell the time as follows : Es ist neun Uhr. It is nine o'clock. Es ist fiinf Minuten nach neun. It is five past nine. Es ist ein Viertel nach neun, or Es ist ein Viertel auf zehn ; es ist ein Viertel zehn. It is a quarter past nine. Es ist halb zehn. It is half-past nine. Es ist zwanzig Minuten vor zehn.

It is twenty to ten. Es ist drei Viertel zehn. It is a quarter to ten. Um is used for " at " when telling the time : Ich komme morgen um elf Uhr, I shall come tomorrow at eleven. They all make adverbs by adding -s : morgens, abends, nachts. Other useful time-words are : heute, today ; morgen, tomorrow ; iibermorgen, the day after tomorrow ; gestem, yesterday; vorgestern, the day before yesterday ; heute vor acht Tagen, a week ago today ; heute iiber acht Tage, a week from today.

I The Genitive is used for customary or repeated time : Sonntags gehe ich nicht in die Schule, I don't go to school on Sundays ; simi- larly : sommers, nachts, tags, morgens. Indefinite Time is also in the Genitive : Eines Tages als ich ins Konzert ging, one day when I was going to the concert. Place is shown in : Er ging seines Weges, he went on his way ; manner in : guten Mutes sein, to be of good cheer ; der Meinung sein, to be of the opinion ; meines Erachtens, in my judgment, opinion ; stehenden Fusses, on the spot, forthwith ; festen Schrittes, with firm step.

We might mention here what was a Genitive but is now treated as the Neuter of the adjective used as a substantive : Nichts Neues, nothing new; Ich habe etwas Interessantes filr Sie, I have something interesting for you ; Er kommt immer mit etwas Neuem, he's always got something new. Ihr, the plural of du, is used in the same way to friends, relatives, children, and in solemn speech.

For all ordinary purposes you will never use either du or ihr, but will be content with the more formal Sie which is both singular and plural. When using du in a letter it is spelt with a capital : Du. Sie, you, is always spelt with a capital ; ich, never except when commencing a sentence. The Reflexive forms are used as in English : Ich wasche mich, I wash myself ; Ich schmeichle mir, I flatter myself the Dative is used with schmeicheln because this verb governs the Dative case. In such cases as : He has a book in front of him, the German uses the Re- flexive, since " him" refers back to the subject "he": Er hat ein Buch vor sich.

Note that sie may mean : she, her, they, them, and when spelt with a capital also; you. You will have to be careful with these words at first. The 3rd Pers. Neuter es is rather tricky. If it refers to a living being, e. An example or two will make this clear : Sprachen Sie mit dem Mddchen? Ja, ich sprach mit ihm or mit ihr in spite of grammar! Did you speak to the girl? Yes, I spoke to her. Liegt Ihr Buch auf dem Pult? Ja, es liegt darauf auf demsel- ben. Is your book lying on the desk? Yes, it is lying on it there- on. This applies to all inanimate objects whether Masc, Fern.

This it does by taking over the ending of der and das in those cases, viz. Neuter Plural der ein die eine das ein die keine N. Hoch, high, changes ch to h before -e : der Berg ist hoch, but ein hoher Berg, a high mountain. Present and Past Participles of verbs are adjectives and declined as such : ein spannendes Buck, a thrilling book ; der gejagte Hase, the hunted hare. Adjectives can be used as substantives, in which case they have a capital letter : der Blinde, the blind man ; die Blinde, the blind woman ; die Blinden, the blind ; ein Blinder, a blind man ; eine Blinde, a blind woman.

The substantive is declined exactly as if it were an adjective. The Neuter is used in a general sense : das Geschehene, what has happened ; das Schone in der Natur, the beautiful in nature. Most monosyllables also modify the vowel if it is a, o, or u. Adjectives ending in a sibilant or in -d or -t, add -est for the Superlative, all others adding -st.

Adjectives ending in -er, -el, or -en may drop the -e when adding the -er for the Comparative, e. A word about the Superlative. There are two kinds : a when we compare one thing or person with others — called the Relative Super- lative — as in ' ' This river is the deepest, ' ' where ' ' This river " is compared with other rivers, Dieser Fluss ist der tiefste ; b the Absolute Superlative, when a thing or person is compared with itself, as in " The river is deepest here," Hier ist der Fluss am tiefsten, literally " Here the river is at its deepest. Here are some examples of the comparison of Adjectives given in the most convenient form for learning, viz.

Idnger als, longer than : Positive Comparative Rel. Superlative Abs. Superlative lang, long langer als der, die das langste am langsten kurz, short kiirzer als der, die, das kiirzeste am kiirzesten alt, old alter als der, die, das alteste am altesten einfach, simple einfacher als der, die, das einfachste am einfachsten The following monosyllables do not modify : klar, clear ; sanft, gentle ; schlank, slender ; stolz, proud ; voll, full ; starr, stiff. Irregular forms are : gut, good, besser, best hoch, high, hoher, hochst nah, near, naher, nachst gross, big, grosser, grosst viel, much, mehr, meist When declined, the Comparative and Superlative forms add on the case inflexions exactly as does the Positive : der alte Mann, der dltere Mann, der alteste Mann; kein alter Mann, kein alt e rer Mann, kein dltester Mann, etc.

In German the Adverb has the same form as the Adjective, but it is not declined : Marie ist schon, Mary is beautiful ; Marie singt schon, Mary sings beautifully.

Full text of "TY German Dictionary"

There are some few Adverbs which use the Superlative without am or aufs, e. Here are some examples of Adverbs compared : Positive Comparative Rel. Superlative schon schoner als am sehonsten aufs schonste schnell schneller als am schnellsten aufs schnellste The following are irregular : gut wohl , well besser am besten gern, willingly lieber am liebsten bald, soon eher am ehesten viel, much mehr am melsten VIII. NUMERALS The Cardinal numbers are : null 1 ein, eine, ein 2 zwei 3 drei 4 vier 5 fiinf funf 6 sechs 7 sieben 8 acht 9 neun io zehn n elf 12 ZWOlf 13 dreizehn 14 vierzehn 15 fiinfzehn funfzehn 16 sechzehn siebzehn siebenzehn 18 achtzehn 19 neunzehn 17 10 1, 20 zwanzig 21 einundzwanzig 22 zweiundzwanzig 23 dreiundzwanzig 30 dreissig 40 vierzig 50 fiinfzig funfzig 60 sechzig 70 siebzig slebenzig 80 achtzig 90 neunzig hundert 10 1 ein hundertundeins ein hundertundzwei zweihundert , tausend , ein tausendundeins , zehntausend , hunderttausend , eine Million Notes.

To distinguish between the Indefinite Article ein, eine, ein and the numeral, e. In telephoning and in wireless 2 is pronounced zwo. The Ordinals are formed by adding -t to the Cardinals from 2 to 19 and -st from 20 onwards, except for first, third, and eighth. Halb, half, is used for ein Zweitel : eine halbe Stunde, half an hour, or die Hdlfle as in Die Hdlfle meines Vermogens, half my fortune.

Other useful forms derived from the cardinals are those in -erlei : einerlei, of one kind ; zweierlei, of two kinds ; allerlei, of all kinds. They are uninfected. By adding -mal we get einmal, once ; zweimal, twice ; dreimal, three times. By adding -fach we get einfach, one-fold, single, simple ; zweifach, twofold ; dreifach, threefold. By adding -ens to the ordinal we get erstens, in the first place ; zweitens, in the second place, etc. The seasons : der Fruhling, der Sommer, der Herbst, der Winter. Useful expressions are : am Montag, on Monday ; er kommt jeden Montag, he comes every Monday ; sie besucht uns Montags, she visits us on Mondays.

Im Fruhling ist das Wetter kiihl, in spring the weather is cool ; im August ist es oft schwul, in August it is often sultry. For dates we ask : Der wievielte ist heute? What is the date day of the month today? The answer runs : Es ist heute der zwanzigste Juli, neunzehnhundertfunfund- vierzig or Wir haben heute den zwanzigsten Juli, etc. Dates on a letter are in the Accusative : Berlin, den vierten August.

To say " That took place in ," we have either Das fand im Jahre statt or Das fand statt, but we never use in alone before the year as we do in English. Im is a fusion of the preposition in and the dative dem. To ask the time, we use Wieviel Uhr ist es? What time is it? We tell the time as follows : Es ist neun Uhr.

It is nine o'clock. Es ist fiinf Minuten nach neun. It is five past nine.

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Es ist ein Viertel nach neun, or Es ist ein Viertel auf zehn ; es ist ein Viertel zehn. It is a quarter past nine. Es ist halb zehn. It is half-past nine. Es ist zwanzig Minuten vor zehn. It is twenty to ten. Es ist drei Viertel zehn. It is a quarter to ten. Um is used for " at " when telling the time : Ich komme morgen um elf Uhr, I shall come tomorrow at eleven.

They all make adverbs by adding -s : morgens, abends, nachts. Other useful time-words are : heute, today ; morgen, tomorrow ; iibermorgen, the day after tomorrow ; gestem, yesterday; vorgestern, the day before yesterday ; heute vor acht Tagen, a week ago today ; heute iiber acht Tage, a week from today. I The Genitive is used for customary or repeated time : Sonntags gehe ich nicht in die Schule, I don't go to school on Sundays ; simi- larly : sommers, nachts, tags, morgens.

Indefinite Time is also in the Genitive : Eines Tages als ich ins Konzert ging, one day when I was going to the concert. Place is shown in : Er ging seines Weges, he went on his way ; manner in : guten Mutes sein, to be of good cheer ; der Meinung sein, to be of the opinion ; meines Erachtens, in my judgment, opinion ; stehenden Fusses, on the spot, forthwith ; festen Schrittes, with firm step.

We might mention here what was a Genitive but is now treated as the Neuter of the adjective used as a substantive : Nichts Neues, nothing new; Ich habe etwas Interessantes filr Sie, I have something interesting for you ; Er kommt immer mit etwas Neuem, he's always got something new. Ihr, the plural of du, is used in the same way to friends, relatives, children, and in solemn speech. For all ordinary purposes you will never use either du or ihr, but will be content with the more formal Sie which is both singular and plural.

When using du in a letter it is spelt with a capital : Du. Sie, you, is always spelt with a capital ; ich, never except when commencing a sentence. The Reflexive forms are used as in English : Ich wasche mich, I wash myself ; Ich schmeichle mir, I flatter myself the Dative is used with schmeicheln because this verb governs the Dative case. In such cases as : He has a book in front of him, the German uses the Re- flexive, since " him" refers back to the subject "he": Er hat ein Buch vor sich.

Note that sie may mean : she, her, they, them, and when spelt with a capital also; you. You will have to be careful with these words at first. The 3rd Pers. Neuter es is rather tricky. If it refers to a living being, e. An example or two will make this clear : Sprachen Sie mit dem Mddchen?

Ja, ich sprach mit ihm or mit ihr in spite of grammar! Did you speak to the girl? Yes, I spoke to her. Liegt Ihr Buch auf dem Pult? Ja, es liegt darauf auf demsel- ben. Is your book lying on the desk? Yes, it is lying on it there- on. This applies to all inanimate objects whether Masc, Fern. Ja, ich schreibe damit. Are you writing with this pen? Yes, I'm writing with it. If the Preposition begins with a vowel — an, auf, unter, iiber, etc. They are declined like ein, eine, ein. The Possessive Pronouns in English are : mine, thine, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs.

German has no special form for " its," sein being used for both " his " and " its. The uninflected form can be 'used only as part of the predicate to indicate simple possession ; the three inflected forms, which have all exactly the same meaning and uses, may be used in all circumstances. These four forms are as follows : i. The uninflected Possessive Pronouns are : mein, dein, sein, unser, euer. They can be used only as part of the predicate to indi- cate possession, e.

Dieser Hut diese Feder, dieses Haus ist mein dein, sein, unser, euer , this hat pen, house is mine thine, his, ours yours. Note that ihr hers, theirs and Ihr yours cannot 'be so used ; we must use one of the inflected forms given below, e. Dieser Hut ist ihrer der ihre, der ihrige ; Diese Feder ist ihre die ihre, die ihrige. The three inflected forms are : a meiner deiner meine deine seiner seine ihrer ihre uns e rer uns e re eu e rer eu e re Ihrer Ihre ihrer ihre These are declined like dieser, diese, dieses. These are also declined like an Adj.

Examples of the use of the Possessive Pronouns are : Dieser Hut ist mein meiner, der meine, der meinige , this hat is mine ; Diese Feder ist unser unsre, die unsre, die unsrige , this hat is ours ; Dieses Haus ist sein seines, das seine, das seinige , this house is his ; Diese Backer sind Ihre die Ihren, die Ihrigen , these books are yours. Frau Schmidt liebt ihre Kinder, hann aber meine die meinen, die meinigen nicht leiden, Mrs.

Smith loves her children but she cannot stand mine. Der, die, das is used as a Demonstrative Adj. Is that lady your mother? It is emphatic and is stressed in speech. It is declined like the Def. Dieser, diese, dieses, this ; jener, jene, jenes, that, yon ; solcher, solche, solches, such ; derjenige, diejenige, dasjenige, that emphatic ; derselbe, dieselbe, dasselbe, the same, are used as Adjectives and Pronouns. Derjenige and derselbe are declined as if they were separated into the Def.

Derjenige is used in solemn style : Ich sehe denjenigen Mann, den ich so lange gesucht habe, I see that man whom I have so long sought for. Derselbe presents no difficulties : Wir haben denselben Namen, we have the same name. Is that the Emperor? Ist DIE deine Tante? Is she your aunt? Derjenige, der das sagt, liigt, he who says that, lies.

Er ist derselbe, den ich gestern traf, he is the same man I met yesterday. All the preceding are declined like dieser, diese, dieses except der, die, das which, instead of the Genitive Masc. This is also true of der, die, das used as a Relative Pronoun see next chapter.

Das referring to a noun which is part of the predicate, e. That this is my father ; that is my mother ; that is my child ; these are my books, is uninflected : Das ist mein Vater ; das ist meine Mutter ; das ist mein Kind ; das sind meine Bilcher. The man, who was old, stepped forward. The man that was old stepped forward. The book, which was lying on the table, was open.

The book that was lying on the table was open. In very correct English, " who " and " which " merely add some information about the Antecedent i. German has no such distinctions, nor has it special forms for persons and things like our " who " and " which. They are always preceded by a comma and always throw the verb to the end of the Relative clause. Der, die, das are ousting welcher, welche, welches in modern German, especially in the spoken language.

The four examples in the first paragraph above are, in German : 1 and 2. Der Mann, der welcher alt war, trat vor. Das Buch, das welches auf dem Tisch lag, war offen. The Relatives are declined as follows : Singular N. It cannot be omitted in German : der Mann, den ich traf ; die Frau, die ich kenne ; das Bier, das ich trinke. The case of the Relative depends on the part it plays in the Rela- tive clause, but its number and gender depend on those of the ante- cedent, as shown in the following examples : Wo ist das Kind, mit dem welchem ich spielte?

Where is the child with whom I used to play? Kennen Sie die Dame, der welcher ich die Blumen gab? Do you know the lady to whom I gave the flowers? Das sind die Leute, von denen welchen ich sprach, those are the people of whom I was speaking. Das ist der Herr, dessen Sohn hrank ist, that is the gentleman whose son is ill. If the Relative refers to an inanimate object and is governed by a preposition, it may be replaced by wo or wor, like da and dar fused with the preposition : Das Buch, in dem welchem ich Use or Das Buch, worin ich lese, the book in which I am reading.

Der Baum, von dem welchem ich spreche or Der Baum, wovon ich spreche, the tree of which I am speaking. Here is a trick sentence to show the uses of der, die, das as a Demonstrative and Relative Pronoun : Ich war mit der, die das sagte, I was with her the woman who said that. Der is the Dat. Fern, of the Demonstrative, die is the Nom. Neuter of the Demonstrative.

Welches Buck lesen Sie p ; and was fur ein? What sort of a hat is that? What sort of a hat have you? Welcher, welche, welches is declined like dieser, and was fur ein like ein, eine, ein, the fur having no influence wmatever on the case although normally fur takes the Accusative. In the Plural the ein is dropped : W as fur Hiite sind das?

What sort of hats are those? The Pronouns are wer P, who? Who is singing so beautifully? They are declined as follows : N. What has fallen on the table? When referring to inanimate objects and governed by a preposition, wo or wor fused with the preposition is used : Womit schreiben Sie P With what are you writing?


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  • Woraus macht man Xigaretten? What do you make cigarettes of? Wer can be used as a " condensed " Relative : Wer das tut, ist ein Narr, he who does that is a fool. They are declined as follows : Nom. Niemand is declined like jemand, the en and em in the Acc. Examples : Man sagt, dass. Why can't he write to one? Etwas, something, frequently was in spoken German, is useful : Ich habe etwas fur Sie, I've got something for you ; Geben Sie mir etwas zu essen, etwas Fleisch, give me something to eat, some meat.

    The negative is nichts : Ich habe nichts zu essen, I have nothing to eat. Those governing the Accusative only are : bis, up to, till ohne, without durch, through, by um, around, at fur, for wider, against, in opposition to gegen, against, towards, about Examples : 1. Er bleibt bis ndchsten Donnerstag, he remains till next Thursday. Er ging durch den Garten, he went through the garden. Er wurde durch eine Kugel getotet, he was killed by a bullet. Dieser Brief is fur mich, this letter is for me.

    Gegen Ende Juli, about the end of July. Sie hat etwas gegen mich, she has something against me. Ohne meinen Bleistift kann ich nicht schreiben, I can't write without my pencil. Wir sassen um den Tisch, we sat round the table. Um jeden Preis, at any price. Er arbeitet wider meinen Willen, he works contrary to my desire.

    Those governing the Dative only are : aus, out of, from seit, since bei, at, near von, of, from, by mit, with zu, to, at nach, after, according to Examples : 1. Aus dem Hause ham ein Kind, a child came out of the house. Er wohnt bei seinem Onkel, he lives with his uncle. Bei dieser Gelegenheit, on this occasion. Ich schreibe mit einer Fullfeder, I write with a fountain-pen.

    Wir gehen nach Hause, nach Berlin, we are going home, to Berlin. Zehn Minuten nach seiner Abreise, ten minutes after his departure. Nach meiner M einung or meiner Meinung nach, in my opinion. Ich bin seit einer Stunde hier, I have been here an hour literally, since an hour. Er wurde von seinen Feinden getotet, he was killed by his enemies.

    Er ist ein Freund von mir, he is a friend of mine. Sie ist nicht zu Hause, she is not at home. Ich gehe zu Bett ; zu meinem Vater, I am going to bed ; to my father. The prepositions shown below govern both the Accusative and Dative : the Accusative when " motion towards " is expressed, and the Dative when ' ' rest at " is meant. Thus er gehtin den Garten means "He goes into the garden from somewhere else , ' ' but er geht in dem Garten means " He walks about in the garden.

    Wo schwimmt er P Unter der Briicke. If it answers the question wohinP, whither? In den Garten. Wohin schwimmt er P Unter die Briicke. Er ging an den Flusz, he went to the river ; Er stand an der Tilr, he stood at the door. Er legte das Buck auf den Tisch, he put the book on the table. Das Buck lag auf dem Tisch, the book lay was on the table. Die Katze kroch hinter den Ofen, the cat crept behind the stove ; Die Katze schlief hinter dem Ofen, the cat slept behind the stove.

    Ick stecke meine Feder in die Tascke, I put stick my pen in my pocket. Meine Feder steckt in der Tascke, my pen is sticking in my pocket. Er setzte sick neben mick, he seated himself sat down next to me. Er sass neben mir, he was sitting next to me. Der Vogel flog iiber das Haus, the bird flew over the house. Der Vogel schwebte iiber dem Hause, the bird hovered over the house. Der Dieb sckliipfte unter das Beit, the thief slipped under the bed. Der Dieb blieb die ganze Nackt unter dem Bette, the thief remained the whole night under the bed. Mein Putt steht vor dem Fenster, my desk stands in front of the window.

    Ick stellte mein Pult vor das Fenster. I put my desk in front of the window. Das Luftzeug flog zwischen die hoken Berge, the aeroplane flew between the high mountains. Das Dorf Kegt zwischen hohen Bergen, the village lies between high mountains. Prepositions taking the Genitive are : anstatt or statt, instead of wahrend, during trotz, in spite of wegen, on account of um Trotz, wahrend and wegen are also occasionally found with the Dative. Examples : 1. Die Schwester sprach anstatt des Bruders, the sister spoke instead of her brother.

    Ick ham wegen des sckleckten Waters spat an, I arrived late on account of the bad weather. Trotz des Sturmes fuhr er nack dem Baknkof, in spite of the storm he drove to the station. Um Gottes willen keif en Sie mir! For God's sake help me!

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    Co-ordinating, which join sentences or words of equal rank. They do not affect the word order, the verb remaining in its normal position. They are : und, and oder, or aber, but entweder Ick lese die Zeitung, und mein Voter mackt einen Spaziergang, 1 read the paper and my father takes a walk. Hans will nack Hause, aber ick mochte gem kier bleiben, Jack wants to go home, but 1 should like to remain here. Er ist nickt alt, sondern jung, he is not old, but young. Er war mein Freund, allein jedoch ich konnte auf ikn nickt vertrauen, he was my friend, but yet 1 could not trust him.

    Sie mussen nack Hause eilen, denn es ist sekr spat, you must hurry home for it is very late. Er muss arbeiten, oder sein Gesckdft wird zugrunde geken, he must work or his business will be ruined. Das Buck ist entweder griXn oder blau, the book is either green or blue. Das Buck ist weder grim nock blau, sondern rot, the book is neither green nor blue, but red. Subordinating conjunctions which link a subordinate clause to a main sentence.

    These always throw the verb — i. Er sprang auf, als ick in das Zimmer trat, he jumped up when I entered the room. A Is refers to an event at a past point of time only. Er sprang immer auf, wenn ick in das Zimmer trat, he always used to jump up when ever I entered the room. Wenn is used for a repeated action.

    Er wilrde aufspringen, wenn ich in das Zimmer trdte or treten wiirde , he would jump up if I entered were to enter the room. Wenn is also used when a condition is implied. Wissen Sie, wann er ankommen wird? Do you know when he will arrive? Wann is interrogative only.

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